If one should describe the culture of Croatia, you have to realize that all their traces have left - Romans, Turks and Habsburgs. Visitors can the heritage from antiquity to Classicism, admire from Baroque to Renaissance.
The Adriatic Sea is the cradle of an ancient civilization whose material evidence come slowly from the depths of Adriatic caves and from the deep blue depths of the sea to the surface. The culture of Croatia can be traced to the Stone Age trace (z. B. findings in caves near the islands of Hvar and Palagruza, etc.).
The favorable geographical position of Croatia brought with it that already the ancient Greeks in the 6th century AD had commerce with the Illyrians by their colonies founded (eg Pharos -... Today's Starigrad on the island of Hvar and Issa - today Vis on the same island).
Later, the Romans, who built not only palaces and summer houses, but also intensively sailed the seas came. Testify many undersea localities, which scattered on the bottom of the sea - from Pula to Cavtat - are. Wherever you dive, you come across the remains of ancient, sunken ships and their cargoes.
With the arrival of the Slavs on the territory of Croatia, a new period, which was characterized by constant struggle for supremacy and by defense against diverse enemies.
In the 18th century, Napoleon, who was replaced after a short reign of Austria. Over the following centuries, Italy and Austria fought for supremacy on the east coast, culminating in "Viska bitka" the battle of Vis in. 1866 Evidence of this famous periods can be found on the mainland, but charge under water in the form of wrecks and remnants of the ship.
This was followed by the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Ports were built and fortified, trade and shipbuilding flourished.
During the two World Wars, the Adriatic was one of the more important battlefields testified by a large number of wrecks, of which remains can still be seen today.
Croatia - Medieval Culture
Early 7th century the Croats settled in the territory of their present-day Republic of Croatia. In the early Middle Ages, after numerous defensive wars, the Croatian state was between different civilizations.
In the 9th century the Croatian territory was intersected by the boundary between the Frankish Empire and Byzantium in the 11th century came from the boundary between the Catholic and Orthodox Church, and the 15th and 19th centuries there Western Christendom and Ottoman Islam successive.
From the 9th to the 12th century Croatia was an independent principality and later a kingdom, which is evidenced by numerous monuments. The ongoing battles with Venice, Byzantium and the Turks urged the Croatian people closer to the Hungarian and Austrian dynasties zoom, resulting in new, smaller and larger struggles for territorial sovereignty and independence. His full independence gained in Croatia 1990 levels.
Numerous powerful empires and states that existed in this area, leaving their traces, which show some of the characteristic and cultural monuments. The coastal towns originated largely in ancient times and the Middle Ages. The city of Pula still possesses her very well-preserved Roman amphitheater, the arch of Sergianer and the Temple of Augustus. In Split, there is the palace of the Roman emperor Diocletian in the 4th century, which was later turned into a medieval town and today is under the protection of UNESCO. These are the biggest monuments of ancient culture on the Croatian coast.
The Euphrasian Basilica in Poreč is the most beautiful preserved building of early Byzantine art in the Mediterranean and originated in the 6th century. The mosaics of the Euphrasian Basilica are in its beauty and architecture where in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna in every way and are among the most important examples of mosaic art in Europe.
The complex of this three-nave basilica is also globally an important cultural monument, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the year 1997th
The Romanesque coins the appearance of the cities of Krk, Rab and Trogir. Trogir is the best preserved Romanesque-Gothic town in Central Europe. In the medieval, walled city there is a well-preserved castle and castles from the Romanesque-Gothic Renaissance and Baroque period to visit.
The most important building is the cathedral of Trogir with its portal from the year 1240. It is the work of master Radovan and is one of the most important examples Romanesque-Gothic art in Croatia.
The Renaissance coined the character of Osor, Pag, Šibenik, Hvar, Korcula and Dubrovnik. Dubrovnik was built according to plans already in the 13th century and is known for its Renaissance walls, castles, public buildings, churches, palaces and aristocratic summer homes excellently preserved.
All these structures have been created during the time of Dubrovnik as an independent republic. The city had high taxes to the Turkish Empire to pay to retain its independence, grow undisturbed by means of trade and shipping, and to use his earned wealth to beautify the city. Today, the whole city is under UNESCO protection.
Of the other cultural monuments should mention definitely the large number of early-Croatian churches that have retained their original appearance and are from the period of the People's rulers. Especially valuable are the preserved stone reliefs with the woven ornaments. Exceptionally well preserved is the wooden door of the Master Buvina at the Cathedral of Split, which is decorated with images from the life of Jesus and was born at the beginning of the 13th century.
Modern art is closely linked to the historical, cultural and architectural heritage, since transform castles, atriums and squares of the ancient cities in the summer lifts the already traditional festivals and international performances: The summer festival in Dubrovnik, the film festival in Pula, the summer in Split, the Musical evenings in Zadar and Osor, the days of Croatian Theatre.
Sometimes you can hear classical and techno music and traditional instruments. Or it sounds to trained voices and the singing local men from the men's choirs (klape), which is also available in the smallest coastal towns.
Croatia Country & People
The inhabitants of the Croatian coastal region and its islands have been dealing always with seafaring, shipbuilding, fishing, viticulture and olive growing.
From the clean sea people win by drying salt, which was cash in the earliest period in already. The oldest salt plant is located in Ston (13C.). Today the salt plant supplies on the island Pag Croatia with sea salt. The olive is for centuries not only food but also remedies and symbol of life.
The beautiful and valuable olive tree is planted with love and poured so that descendants can enjoy its fruits. Eaten they are fresh, salted or pressed into oil. And not in olive oil, many delicacies were not what they are.
Aromatic plants such as rosemary, basil, fennel u. V. A are. For the special taste of the Istrian and Dalmatian cuisine, as well as of this wine served responsible. In its color and taste the power of the sun is trapped and is used under a lot of effort and traditional to refine every drop. Vineyards and winemakers there is enough in this region, so that the vineyards of the islands seen from the sea seem to slide into the sea, inexorably.
The Croatian wine-growing tradition has been to sea borne ever due to the many removals of islands to island and sea. Grgich (Grgić) from the island of Brac is today the most famous wine of New Zealand and also in California, there are Croatian Weinbauern.Eine Another tradition is olive growing, particularly in the city of Punat on the island Krk. Olive Festival in Punat takes place usually in September.
The enchanting scents of the Mediterranean float well over the purple lavender fields of Hvar. The lavender bunches, essential oils, creams and soaps are offered everywhere on the coast to take them home to presented it or simply to enjoy. If it is so clean and warm like ours, then live in the sea than fish and shellfish also sponges and corals. The inhabitants of the island Krapanj deal for generations to the processing of sponges. On the island Zlarin however, one that specializes in the machining of bright red Adriatic coral. Unfortunately, this tradition is losing over the years more and more.
The maritime and shipbuilding are the people there in the blood. The best known is probably the sailor Marko Polo from Korčula. Major shipbuilders were the old Dubrovnik and today there are small, family farms like. z. B. a on the island of Rab.
The fish was in some places, in the vicinity there was too little land for tilling and even less rain, the staple food of the families. Fishing was in any weather, but the networks were not always filled to the brim. The descendants of the fishermen of Komiža fishing Salij and now in the ocean in front of American and Chilean coast. The here left behind supply the fish industry in Rovinj and a large number of restaurants.
Croatia - Tourism & Fishing
Today is still fished. However, more and more to the for tourism and more out of pleasure than necessity. Nevertheless, such a self-caught, grilled or braised fish still tastes delicious. Say at least the locals - and which one should be believed ...
All activities described are still kept and they unfold even thanks to the development of tourism, whose 130th anniversary was already celebrated. Except, of course, hotels and other modern facilities and activities offered. Where dominated at the end of the 20th century the classical, healing congress tourism, nautical, adventurous and rustic tourism is asked in this century ...
All this and much more you can find here in Croatia. The beauty of nature is due to the original and diverse landscape which alpinism, mountaineering, rafting, diving, sailing, paragliding and much more allows.
And even if you already own exercise any of these activities, however, would like to learn one or more of them, then you are guaranteed enough and finding good trainers and offers it. Antique and art lovers and amateur archaeologists should visit especially the old coastal towns such as Split, which can boast with a 1700 year old history.
The people of this region have many positive characteristics and know how to enjoy the finer things in life in addition to the hard work.
In the coastal towns and lives throughout the Mediterranean region, would, and fight you on the street. There is talk, gossiping, scolded, but also sung. The vocals, especially the men's choirs (klape), accompanies people day in and day. Man singing at work and at leisure, in joy and sorrow, alone or with friends, so no one has to wonder about the fact that the great Croatian singer mostly originate from the coast or the islands.
In her spare many men bocce, even or especially when they are older. In this sport, the Croats have already celebrated remarkable achievements. The women are a subject in itself. On one hand, it is not just a rumor that they are especially nice if one takes as a benchmark the many national and international beauty contests.
On the other hand should be added that they are just as good mothers. acting Most of our songs, except the sea and love, by the mothers. The women made earlier on lots of silk and klöppelten. Nowadays this work, however, is almost forgotten. The Coast Konavle in Dubrovnik is famous for its special silk spinning techniques that belong to the pride of every home.
The women cultivated their own silkworms, cooking the cocoons, spun the threads and colored them yellow, red and black. The women of Pag contrast klöppelten tip Agavenfäden which, if not are still as valuable even more valuable than before.
The beauty of this country is not only in the beauty of the landscapes and their fruits that we see, feel or taste, but also the peculiarity of the locals which give us both by their appearance, their lives and their thinking. However, the greatest value everyone finds in things and experiences that he can take to share with loved ones and remembered.
The coast 5835.5 km or in other words 74% of the Adriatic coast belonging to Croatia, 16% to Italy, 5% to Albania, 3.3% to Montenegro, 0.5% to Slovenia, and 0.3% to BiH , This coast is one of the "turned notch test" of the world. The Istrian Peninsula has an area of 3,476 square kilometers and is one of differently sized parts of the three states of Croatia, Slovenia and Italy.
The proximity to Italy offers the opportunity to get to know the Italian side of the Adriatic. The city of lagoons is so much to explore: Venice was the ruler of the seas and is now one of the most famous Italian cities and on 4 islands. The whole town is crisscrossed by canals where mostly gondolas and vaporettos sail because of car traffic prohibited there or is simply impossible. Special tourist attractions are a gondola ride, feeding the pigeons in the square of St. Markus, view the tour of the Bridge of Sighs and the possibility of a number of local churches.
Venice, the city with the most epithets. One of them is La Serenissima what "the fairest" means and therefore to that of Venice for centuries as was the city of lovers, the city of artists, writers, musicians and painters, city of glass magician Murano Island and the movie lover. During the Carnival, you can here, as in Rio, experience the peak of exuberance and joy before Lent. This is the week in which one surrenders all pleasures and celebrates unceasingly.
The Adriatic Sea Croatia also shares with the Republic of Slovenia, whose coast can also boast beautiful nature and cities with an interesting history. More specifically, the Slovenian coast stretches to the Bay of Koper and a part of the Piran Bay are the mouth of the river Dragonja. Piran iact a coastal town with a partially preserved medieval city walls. The walls consist of two parallel ramparts from the 15th and 16th centuries.
Some well-known attractions are the Tartini Square and the Church of Sveti Juraj which stands on a hill outside the city. Furthermore enumerate are "Mletačka kuća" or "Venetian House", which mid-15th century. As a residential house built in the style of Venetian Gothic and Ziehbrunnen in the main square and the "Baroque house" that from the Baroque end of 18C. Stammen.
From the Adriatic to the Montenegrin coast
The exploration of the Adriatic should terminate in the south and visiting the Montenegrin coast there.
One of the most wonderful Adriatic coves is the Bokokotorski, which is also called Bay of Croatian saints and today belongs to Montenegrin territory. Igalo and Herceg Novi are the most attractive locations on the Montenegrin Adriatic coast. Igalo from all directions to reach by any means of transportation. Being so close to two international airports, the Adriatic road with branches towards Dubrovnik, Mostar, Trebinje, Sarajevo, as well as the capital of Montenegro Podgorica (in Dubrovnik in 26 km distance and Tivat 22 km Čilipi Airport), Igalo is optimal transport with Croatia , Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of Europe together. The sea link is the ferry that connects the Italian coast with the ports of Dubrovnik and Bar. Such ferries also exist for other Croatian islands.
Igalo and its neighbor Herceg Novi are located in a picture-perfect small bay on the southwest side of Bokokotor Bay at the foot of mountains Orjen (1982 m). The ancient Greeks, Romans and Illyrians built their villages, both in the bay, as well as in the surrounding mountains.
Since then great powers like Byzantium, Venice, the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary have dominated this area. If you walk along the streets and shops of Herceg Novi, as you stroll through the history of the Mediterranean. One should look in any case, the Roman mosaics in Risno, the church Our Lady of the Rocks, the exhibits from the church museum and the beautiful church of Orovac, which was built on a cliff with beautiful views of the Bay of Kotor.
After that you should Dobrota and the old town of Kotor and Budva, which is full of life in summer visit. It is similar in Bečići, Miločer, St.. Stefan and Petrovac. Should you visit a bar, one will show proudly a more than 2000 year old olive tree with a trunk circumference of more than 10 meters.
The exploration of the Adriatic you should quit depending on your starting point in the south or north. Because, even if you think they have seen it all, so you will always have a lot of places, monuments and people who have seen and know to be learned value. Although many countries share the Adriatic Sea, so can the stones of different cultures, traditions and customs in the history together to form a mosaic whose fate is beauty and durability.
Croatia Food & Drink
Especially the Croatian gastronomy places on the coasts of great importance to its origin, which is the traditional natural and healthy Mediterranean cuisine. This is based on vegetable dishes with olive oil, seafood and fish, wine, goat and sheep.
The special feature of the kitchen is in the preparation. The vegetables are cooked in a little water and seasoned with olive oil and aromatic herbs, the fish, however, is braised, boiled or grilled. Meat, especially lamb, cooked in a stone oven and so gets its unique flavor.
The northern and southern coast of the Adriatic Sea each have a characteristic composition and its own flavor of dishes. A distinction is drawn between the gastronomy of Istria and the Kvarner region and gastronomy of Dalmatian cuisine.
The special feature of the Istrian cuisine lies in its abundant use of seasonal vegetables and fruits. So the gastronomic experience in Istria every season is different.
If you visit the northern Adriatic, you definitely try Istrian prosciutto which is dried by the sea wind Bora deemed an authentic Croatian product with geographical origin. recommended Similarly, grilled or cooked in wine pork sausages, as well as the most famous Istrian dish - the Manestra: A thick soup with vegetables and dried meat. This region also offers a variety of fish and seafood specialties. Salted anchovies, a conch salad, fresh fish and fried or boiled Kvarner scampi lure weekend regularly the Italian neighbors here.
Various risottos and pastas are flavored with olive oil, wild asparagus and truffles, first class mushroom with unforgettable taste and special aroma and represent only a part of the extensive choice, which one must definitely try.
Traditional Istrian sweets are simple and unsophisticated, but perfectly suited to round off an excellent Istrian meal. Fritule a kind of fried donuts are served best in winter. Pinca, a sweet bread, is prepared for the Easter holidays and a swirl of dough and apples and boiled or fried ravioli taste in any season.
The Dalmatian cuisine is lighter and less aromatic. An abundance of fresh or lightly cooked vegetables to fish, fish soup, octopus dishes, raw oysters from Ston, scampi and mussels' na buzaru "(steamed)," pašticada "with gnocchi (Dalmatian goulash), meat swept grilled with rosemary and the famous cheese from Pag are just some of the specialties that will attract everyone. Unmissable are the olives, fresh or salted, and the olive oil, which forms the basis for the Gatronomie Dalmatia.
Typical Dalmatian desserts are popular because of their simplicity. The most popular ingredients make Mediterranean fruit such as dried figs and raisins, almonds, honey and eggs are. Known sweets are the Dubrovnik "rožata", a caramel pudding made from eggs, as well as the gingerbread from the island of Hvar.
For every good meal, but even before that, and of course after that, you can enjoy a glass of good wine. As throughout the Mediterranean, as well as the wine of the Croatian coastal region is a product that should be required hard work and knowledge and enjoyed with recognition.
The first vineyards in this area have been planted by the Greeks. The wine from their colony Isse on Vis Island was considered the best wine in the ancient world. For the spread of viticulture also contributed the Roman soldiers by they took seeds for vines and wineries docked. The fertile soil and the abundance of sun promote the maturation of each vine, thus ensuring excellent wines which were exported to the most remote regions of the Roman Empire.
The great adventurer and lover Giacomo Casanova wrote in his famous memoirs that he drank in Istria a "fantastic refošk wine". Not even officers, travelers and adventurers from the Austria-Hungarian monarchy could resist the Istrian and Dalmatian wines and drank during their visits to the region with pleasure.
The vine and wine are inseparable connected with the history and the present-day use and importance of this rich wine region. The different landscapes, climate and soil give the local wines great versatility of flavors. The malvasia, an Istrian white wine, complements the wide range of marine cuisine perfectly.
Teran, which also healing powers are attributed, is a wine of dark, ruby-like color and goes well with meat dishes, goulash and venison. The Zlaćani Muškat Istrian characterizes an intense smell of wild carnations. It goes well with sweets, but also very often used to flavor dishes. Even the Dalmatian Prošek offers through its pronounced flavor with every sip a great taste experience.
The famous Plavac from the island of Hvar can be served with roasts and goat cheese Its pleasant, dry taste and its special bouquet are a real treat. Originally from Primošten Babić variety is known around the world, and known for their wine growing peninsula Pelješac offers true jewels among wines such. B. Postup and Dingač, and Kneževo- and Carsko- wine (Herzogen- and Tsar wine).
The wine trails of the Adriatic will lead you to a journey of exploration with treasures stuffed wine cellars, which are caused by the long-standing nature of a long winemaking tradition. These wines can, after you have first tasted himself, serve your friends as part of an unforgettable vacation.